Minggu, 09 Mei 2010

Kamus Istilah Hukum - A


In English / dalam Bahasa Inggris

In Indonesian /dalam Bahasa Indonesia




To annul or repeal. For example, laws may abrogate rights, duties and obligations.



Refusing to vote.


aksep / akseptasi

Agreement to pay by signing a bill of exchange.



Formal acceptance by a state of an international agreement even though that state did not take part in its negotiation or signing. Usually only permitted with consent of participating states or if provided for in the agreement.



At Indonesian law, a person against whom an indictment has been read by a prosecutor in a criminal court. This person is then tried for the crime referred to in the indictment. If that person is found guilty, he or she is then referred to as the ‘convict ‘(terpidana).



At Indonesian law, this word is used in a number of different and inconsistent ways. it can be: (1) used generally to refer to anyone who has at some time been accused of a crime regardless of whether they are currently a suspect (tersangka), defendant (terdakwa), or convict (terpidana); (2) synonymous with tersangka; (3) synonymous with ‘charged’, that is, to be formally accused by police of committing a particular crime; (4) used generally to refer to someone who has been accused of doing something, even in a non-legal sense; (5) used to refer to a person or as a verb (the act of being accused).

acquisition (of control of land)


The act of gaining physical control of land, including by a person who is not the owner, usually on the basis of court decision. also used to refer to the transfer of a land right to the government in the public interest – in theory, with payment of adequate compensation on the basis of presidential decision no 55 of 1993.


bebas murni

The accused is set free by a court on grounds of insufficient evidence. A prosecutor cannot appeal this decision.



act which breaks the law

perbuatan melanggar hukum

additional punishment

hukuman tambahan

Punishment that is handed down against a convict in addition to the primary punishment and which is more civil in nature. These punishments include the repeal of certain rights, seizure of certain goods and public announcement of the court’s decision.

administrative law

hukum administrasi negara

This body of law places legal limits on government action and allows citizens to seek damages or other remedies for breaches of those limits.



Person appointed by a court to handle the affairs of a debtor business and / or determine whether it should continue to operate or be wound up. see winding up.







Someone who has been authorized by another person (the principal) to act on behalf of that person. The agent can enter into binding agreements and make other decisions on behalf of the principal, and can create liability for the principal if loss is caused while carrying out his or her duties.

aggravating factors

hal-hal yang memberatkan

In Indonesia, factors about the accused that a judge considers should increase the severity of the sentence handed down. Examples of these factors include: an accused behaving impolitely in court or not showing remorse, etc.



One state uses force against the territorial integrity, sovereignty or political independence of another state.

alternative dispute resolution (ADR)

alternatif penyelesaian sengketa

Forms of dispute resolution outside the court system, including arbitration, mediation and negotiation.



Change to provisions of an existing law.



The government obliterates a wrongdoing or declares that it will not prosecute those who have committed a particular crime.

ancillary agreement

perjanjian tambahan

A supplementary agreement, the applicability and validity of which depends on the main agreement. If the main agreement is terminated then so is the ancillary agreement (but the opposite is not true).





1. An exclusive right held by copyright owners. in many countries the right to announce includes, reading in public, broadcasting, exhibition, sale, distribution, and dissemination of a work or creation using any equipment, including the internet, or any means which enables the work or creation to be read, heard or seen by another person.

2. Some intellectual property rights must be ‘announced’ in a government publication for a particular time as part of the registration process.

annual general meeting

Rapat Umum Pemegang Saham Tahunan (RUPS)

Meeting typically held annually between shareholders, directors, and commissioners of a company as regulated in the company’s articles of association. The meeting’s aim is to receive and approve the company’s report on the previous financial year’s results, determine payment of dividends to shareholders and determine company policy for the coming financial year.

anti-competition/ anti-trust

anti monopoli / anti pakat

Body of law which controls monopolies and other threats to competition posed by companies.

annual fee

biaya tahunan

Fee that must be paid by a patent holder every year.

annual leave

cuti tahunan

Under Indonesian law, the right of workers to take time off work for at least 12 working days each year. Only workers who have worked continuously for one year enjoy this right.





A higher court (appeals court) reviews the decision of a lower court on the request of a dissatisfying party. In a civil law country, an appeals court will usually review the facts and the law the lower court relied upon in making its decision. in common law countries, an appeals court will often review the law applied by a lower court but will not usually disturb the findings of fact of the lower court.

appeal court

pengadilan banding

Court that has the authority to adjudicate appeals against decisions of lower courts. In Indonesia, the pengadilan tinggi is the appeals court.



Literally, ‘umpire’. person appointed to settle a dispute, including by arbitration.



Settlement of a civil dispute using an independent person (arbitrator or arbiter) or tribunal rather than the formal judicial process. the parties will usually be bound by the decision. Usually requires an agreement to arbitrate between the parties at dispute.



Person who presides over, and resolves disputes in, arbitration proceedings.

argument (legal)


Legal argument submitted in court.

arrestee / detainee


Person arrested or detained.



articles of association

anggaran dasar

Document covering management of the company, including the powers of directors, operational issues, and the relationship between directors and shareholders. In some jurisdictions, the articles of association and the memorandum of association are separate documents that together form the constitution of the company. In others, one of these documents is no longer required or both have been merged. In Indonesia, the anggaran dasar is a part of the memorandum of association.

assault / battery


asset-back securities

efek beragunan aset

assignment of claims

pengalihan hak tagih

Transfer of a debt by a creditor to a third party, in Indonesia through a deed. An executed assignment will only bind a debtor who is given notice of the assignment.



attorney general

jaksa agung



The provision of government authority by means of a law.

authentic deed

akta notaris

Deed created before a notary. this deed is the strongest form of documentary evidence in court. The main difference between this and other deeds is that the notary witnesses the time the legal act was carried out and by whom.

authentic deed

akta otentik

Equivalent to authentic deed.

autonomous region

daerah otonomi

A region established by law with defined boundaries which can regulate and administer local issues on its own initiative in accordance with the aspirations of its community.



Legal authority to do something.


putusan arbiter

Dispute-resolving decision of an arbitrator or arbitral body.

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